Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Legacy Of The Scientific Revolution Philosophy Essay

The Legacy Of The Scientific Revolution Philosophy Essay There were so many ideas that so many talented individuals combined to create a movement that swept across the world from Europe all the way to America throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Many scientists of this time were trying to achieve their idea of having a world without a social order, a higher level of class, and no institutionalized cruelty. This era became known as The Scientific Revolution. Scientists were opening new doors and making remarkable discoveries in technology, mathematics, medicine, astronomy. It was during this time scientists were examining old and new theories from past cultures and ages. The scientists of this time went beyond simple observation. They wanted to know nature and the worlds deepest secrets and in order to do that, they had to experiment. Experiments in this time were vital to science so that they could explain why nature and the world as we know it does what it does. Not all were even right but nonetheless they were exploring ne w ideas and taking risks which in turn provided us with some of the most important laws and theories that have changed the world we live in and continue to change the world to this very day. These scientists have become famous for their discoveries and for giving mankind different ideas and knowledge that in some sense have became world changing. I am going to go into depth about the scientists of this time and how their ideas created the legacy that is known as The Scientific Revolution. Scrupulous observations and a willingness to question accepted beliefs I feel would describe Nicolaus Copernicus. He was a polish priest and an astronomer who for 25 years studied planetary movements and created his own theories on how the stars, earth, and the other planets revolved around the sun. His theory was called the heliocentric or sun-centered theory and was pretty serious for him considering it challenged the religious view at the time. Thought he was not the first who introduced this theory, he was able to work out this theory in full mathematical detail. Copernicus had integrated physics with the demands of astronomy and was the first person in history to achieve completing a complete and general solar system combining physics, mathematics, and cosmology. In doing this, he motivated other scientists to attempt to perfect and his ideas paved roads and paths to new more elaborate ideas. Copernicus had never published his findings and theories because of how it challenged t he churchs ideas on the location of earth in the heavens. It wasnt until right before his death, his apprentice convinced him to publish what was called On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. This publication was described as a revolution making rather than a revolutionary text (Kagan, Ozmet, Turner 408). Copernicus theories and ideas set the example and started the beginning of a revolution of ideas and theories that we still carry with us today. Copernicus work inspired another scientist to continue researching new ideas. Tycho Brache and his assistant Johannes Kepler continued to further investigate and perfect Copernicus ideas. Kepler believed that certain mathematical laws promote planetary motion. One of his laws showed that the planets revolved around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles. Keplers laws showed that Copernicus was onto something with his ideas. Once Brache passed, Kepler continued to his work to prove that we lived in a sun-centered universe. He then made a new model that would abandon Copernicus circular components and instead he would adopt a new theory. This model was the first astronomically that actually showed motion in the direction the planets were moving. They werent circular like previous theories, his ideas made them elliptical. This scientific law that each planets orbit is an eclipse with the sun has made a huge impact on todays aerospace program around the world. Today Keplers law is used on all unmanned aircraft from the Sputnik (our first artificial satellite) to COMSAT, INTELSAT, NAVASTAR. After Keplers time came Galileo Galilei in the 1600s. He was absolutely brilliant and earned himself many nicknames like hero of modern science, father of modern science, father of modern astronomy, or father of modern mathematics. Galileos theories were based on real experimentation not philosophical ideals. One of his first experiments where with a pendulum. He noticed that when its swinging it gradually slows down. Each time it swings, it covers less area but always takes the same amount of time for each swing. He concluded that this would be a good timing mechanism for a clock or even to count peoples heartbeats. Galileo proved Aristotles theory that objects that are heavier fall faster wrong. He climbed to the top of a very tall building and dropped cannonballs of all different weights from it just to test Aristotles theory. He found that the theory was incorrect and that the balls all hit the ground at the very same time no matter what their weight was. In doing this experiment he was able to get answers faster than he would have if he had just observed random objects falling in everyday life. Galileo was most known for his improvements of the telescope and the discoveries he made when viewing the planets (1609). He saw the stars, mountains on the moon, blemishes on the sun, and even was able to see the moons orbiting around jupiter. It was then he realized that what he was seeing was way more than anyone had ever explained or seen. It was another one of Aristotles theories that the moons and stars were smooth and perfect but what Galileo seen was contradictory. He seen they were very uneven and rough. He published these observations and theories in a series of newsletters to share with the public. They were called Starry Messenger (1610) and Letters on Sunspots (1613). Galileo supported the ideas and theories of Copernicus. Even though by this time he was considered a prodigy of science the Catholic Church had a serious issue with him backing Copernicuss theories. They had warned him but he decided to silently continue his studies. Until 1632 when he publishes his book, Dialogues concerning the Two Great World Systems that it very clearly shows that he indeed supported the theories he denied. He lived on house till his death in 1642, but his books and ideas still spread throughout the world. There were still questions that 17th century scientists couldnt figure out about the planets and how they moved about like they did. Isaac Newton answered these by bringing together all of their ideas, theories, and breakthroughs and put them all into one theory of motion. Keplers ideas were about how the planets orbited around the sun, Galileo has studied the motion of pendulums, so Newtons theory was that this same single force controlled all the motions and matter on Earth and in outer space. In discovering this, another theory of Aristotles was proven wrong, but his ideas were never bad in the sense that they made other scientists think and further their studies. Which is exactly what happened here. This discovery of Newtons became known as The Law of Universal Gravitation. It meant that everything in the world was attracted to every other object. The strength of the attraction depends on how big something is or how close. This whole theory explains a lot about how the planets or bit around the sun. Newton went on to publish Principia de Mathematica. It is said that this book was the greatest works in the history of science (qtd. in Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution 2012). In this book he talks about his laws of motion and his theory of gravity. Newton has really helped life today with his laws of motion. He gave the world a mathematical explanation of gravity, he taught us how forces and motion all relate, and he gifted the world with laws of motion that we commonly use today. Have you ever been on an airplane? Have you ever watched a spaceship shoot off into space? All of these things happening coincide with Newtons laws of motion. His theories have become such an important staple even in our everyday lifes. I think Newtons ideas and theories are what represent the highest level of achievements of the Scientific Revolution. He is an exact example of why this time period has such a legacy and importance. These scientists all contributed amazing ideas and theories. They used each others ideas as learning foundations for their own ideas and have given the world some of the most useful scientific laws and knowledge. These men all together developed a modern approach to science using logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. This became known as the Scientific Method. The method starts by having a question or problem that you would get by having an observation. Then the scientist would form a hypothesis (initial idea), and then they would test this in an experiment. In the final part of the process, the scientists would analyze and interpret their results to reach a final conclusion. This is when you can either say if the hypothesis is right or wrong. This method is used all around the world. From grade school science class all the way to college science courses. Along with the scientists of this time, there were also talented philosophers during this time providing ideas and challenging the times. Francis Bacon had a very strong interest in science. He thought scientists would generate knowledge that would improve peoples lives if they had a greater understanding of our world. He always pushed scientists to experiment and take in the world, gather information, and then they could draw observations and conclusions about all the information they found. This method is called empiricism. It has become something that is now used throughout the world by scientists. Renee Descartes was a philosopher who relied on mathematics and logic. He wasnt big on using experimentation. This was a new approach to things. Descartes developed analytical geometry. It linked the two and he thought it provided a new approach for scientific research. He also believed everything should be questioned until proven to be true. Descartes is known by saying I think therefore I am. Modern scientific methods have been based on the ideas of Bacon and Descartes. It is through their thoughts and ideas that we have achieved a more reasonable understanding of our world today. Thomas Hobbes was said to be the most original philosopher of the 17th century (Kagan, Ozment, and Turner 415). He had a darker view of human nature. In a nutshell he thought all men were out for themselves when it comes down to it. He saw things much differently than most people in that time. His thoughts brought him to the conclusion that human beings only exist to meet the needs of everyday life. He felt that giving yourself to an absolute government was the only way to protect yourself and your rights. John Lockes thoughts were much brighter. He was a very influential man because of his thoughts politically and philosophically in the 17th century (Kagan, Ozment, and Turner. 416). The Declaration of Independance actually used some of his ideas. He said that the kind of government the people should have must be determined by human experience and reason, not the God given authority of kings (Henderson and Yount 40). It is these ideas that proved Locke to be one of the most influencial thinkers of this time. His works really influenced political philosophies of this time too. His writing, Letter Concerning Toleration gave people a reason to have religious tolerance. He argued in his writings that human beings cannot alone evaluate the real claims of different religious standpoints in religion. He felt that if you enforce one single religion it wouldnt have the desired effect because you cannot force someone to have a true belief in something. Lastly if this was made to happen it would just mess society up more. Lockes beliefs were different than that of Hobbes. He thought humans had reason and even tolerance, though he did also agree that it was human nature to be selfish and when money was created, this was proven. It is because of the legacy the Scientific Revolution carries that other scientists continue to study, improve theories, and uncover secrets that our Earth has to offer. The scientific method has became important in many different situations. Scientists to this day continue to develop new tools and theories that originated from the scientists and philosophers of this time. We have gained the first microscope during this time, the first mercury barometer, also the first thermometer. All of which we still use. In modern times so many improvements have been achieved in medicine, the human body, and in the natural world because of the ideas during the scientific revolution.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Case: Walter Hundhausen Gmbh

Size up Germany’s foundry Industry? Is WH well positioned in it now and in the future?The beginning of the new millennium has presented Walter Hundhausen (WH) with a big hurdle to jump. The German economy is experiencing economic stagnation, an aging population and a German labour market that is filled with many intrusive government regulations. The German economy has been growing at an average rate of 0.6 percent per year for the last 4 years; making it one of the slowest growing economies in the Euro Zone.However, study’s suggests in 2004, the domestic economy is expected to grow above 2 percent. Moreover, one-third of Germany’s economy is comprised of exports. In performing a Pest Analysis (see Diagram 1 below), there are many macro factors affecting the German Foundry Industry.MACRO FORCESThe acronym stands for Political, Economic, Social and Technological concerns that could affect the strategic development of the casting foundry industry in Germany. By iden tifying PEST influences it helps gage the external environment in which the casting foundry industry operates. PoliticalStrict Layoff Regulations: Government regulations had strict policies in place on how organizations could layoff employees. Before employees were laid-off, management had to advise the Works Council and they had to agree to the nature and timing of the plan. In addition, the management team had to develop a social plan for each employee on how the layoff would affect them and what remedies the organization would put in place for them. If a  social plan was not presented, employees could claim for compensation through the courts. This could prove to be costly in time, money and reputation.National Bargaining on Wages: The current German industrial relations policy was based on a duel model. One part dealt with the collective bargaining, while the other dealt with codetermination. The collective bargaining agreement dealt with minimums and maximums, with respect to wages and salaries and working hours. Codetermination was an actual Act or Law that provided labourers in Germany with three levels of representation; Supervisory Board, Works Council and Labour Director. However, in the end, all collective bargaining agreements could be adjusted and then ratified through this process.Social Market Economy: The political climate in the country is based on the social market economy, where employers and unions worked as partners to better the organization as a whole. However, in reality, the balance of power lay in the hands of the union. Unions negotiated national and regional wages and hours of operations; in addition, they also negotiated paid time-off. In 2004, the average individual worked 1,542 hours. The standard legislated work week was set at 60 hours with a minimum paid leave of 24 days. That translates to 2,832 hours per year. Despite the legislation, the average individual worked 54 percent less than was legislated in 2004.Ordnung Princip al: This is Germany’s version of the Triple Bottom Line, where economy, society and the government all participate in the mechanism for workers democracy. New Environmental Legislation: The government imposed a new ecological tax in 2000 that focused on waste reduction as opposed to waste recycling. This added costs in the form of time and money to the WH casting process. From an economic perspective, the government wanted the industry to focus on the externalities and reduce them or remove them totally.EconomicalDomestic Growth: The last three years (2001 to 2004), the German economy was growing at an average rate of 0.6 percent per year. Germany had been experiencing the slowest growth in the Euro zone. This affected many organizations in Germany, particularly mid-sized companies that were not big enough to fully utilize economies of scale. Future Growth: The economy in Germany has been slated to grow around 2 percent for the year 2004.This represent an increase of 1.4 perc ent over the previous year and that may not  seem big, but relatively speaking that is a 233% increases from year over year. Increase in Value of the Euro: Another concern at the macro level is the appreciation of the Euro against other currencies, most notably the American dollar. As the Euro increased, the cost of WH’s products also increased. However, the opportunity to purchase at a lower price scrap iron and steel from non-European countries has also increased. As the Euro appreciates in value, it can now purchase raw materials at a lower cost.SocialAging Population: The current labour shortage in Germany is creating a nightmare in the casting industry. In order to attract and retain employees, organizations were paying a premium over scheduled tariffs. These costs were substantial, as many companies were running multiple shifts in order to keep up with demand. Reduction in Full-Time Employment: The current macro environment suggests a reduction in the number of full-t ime resources, because of the high labour costs. However, because of the aging population, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to find qualified workers.Sounds counter intuitive; a reduction of full-time staff to cut costs, but many companies in the industry are paying premiums over scheduled tariffs in order to keep their current workforce. Strong Social Employment Contracts: The Germany foundry industry has a strong employment contract system, where employers are responsible for the well being of their workers. The contract is enforced by the Works Council and the Labour Director who is part of the origination. Their main objective is to resolve disputes through intensive informal contacts.Strong Union Presence: The dual model in the industry consists of a collective bargaining agreement and codetermination. This dual system gives the unions a strong position within the foundry industry. Their presence has lead to numerous bouts of conflict with management when negotiating collective agreements and in some cases these disagreements lead to long and bitter strikes.TechnicalAbove Average R&D Investment: R&D is a major competent in the casting foundry industry. R&D creates better products and above all reduces costs through the automation of the casting process. Moreover, by being a Tier 1 supplier, customers are expecting better products and lower costs year over  year. Frequent Technology Changes: In the casting process, technology changes occur frequently, in order to maintain lower sand-to-metal ratios and scrap ratios. Largest European Foundry: Being the largest casting foundry in Europe, economies of scale can have significant cost savings, as the organization can purchase large amounts of scrap iron and steel.Close Proximity to Clients: By being close to customers, shipping costs and delivery times are reduced substantially; giving the local casting foundry a cost advantage over their long distance competitors. Efficient Sand Casting Process: T he casting process is highly integrated and labour intensive. By having a disjointed process, the cost of the process will be high and the products produced would be of an inferior quality. A process that is tightly controlled and automated will reduce unnecessary waste and cut costs in the form of wages and raw material.MICRO FORCESBelow are the specific micro forces that will influence how WH reacts to the environmental issues assessed above.SupplyThe cost of raw materials was increasing 23 percent year over year (see Diagram 2 below). Raw materials have been the single most expensive cost to WH. Diagram 3 below, illustrates the cost of raw materials to revenues and the cost of wages and salaries to revenues. As for wages and salaries, they have been holding steady. Moreover, the trend seems to be downward sloping (see Diagram 3, below).Total revenues have been increasing steadily since 2001; with a significant increase occurring in 2004 (see Diagram 4, below).Year over Year Incre ase in Revenues 2001 2002 2003 2004Total Revenues 97 99 103 117 2.06% 4.04% 13.59%However, in 2004, the index price of scrap iron and steel has been averaging around 191.00, that is a 43 percent increase, year over year. The trend seems to be heading higher, potentially breaking the 250.00 barrier (see Diagram 5, below).Average 81.25 99.91667 99.91667 111.5 133.75 191.25CompetitionCompetition from non-OEM organizations was growing. However, customers today are more sophisticated and understand that quality plays an important role in the decision to purchase a product versus purchasing a product on price alone. The real threat will come from organizations in the casting industry from Eastern European that will eventually become tier 1 suppliers. One of the challenges facing WH is the current workforce in Germany. WH has been experiencing a high degree of absence due to leaves and sick days.The above graph (see Diagram 6) illustrates by department where the greatest number of absences are occurring. The stars indicate the average per department and in 2004, there was an increase in the number of absences in Core Marketing, Finishing and Heat Treatment. Finishing can be explained because of the nature of the work itself. It is one of the most difficult  parts of the casting process. Some of the other notable information to mention, is when the automated casting process is operating efficiently, sick days and leaves are kept to a minimum.For example, pouring and melting in 2003 experienced numerous mechanical problems, thus the department experienced a higher level of absences as opposed to 2004, when the process was operating with little interruptions, sick days and leaves decreased substantially. Moreover, for the first 6 months of 2004, the average cost of the total days off work amounted to 3.39 million, which represents 8.7 percent of the overall company’s revenues (see Diagram 7, below).DemandThe biggest threat facing WH is their ability to reduce costs. Their customers are demanding lower prices and the organiza tion has been responding, by investing heavily in R&D to improve the casting process. However, if they do not get the costs of the casting process under control, they will not be able to meet the increasing demand from the motor vehicle industry. The motor vehicle industry in 2004 purchased a total of 68% of the total industry’s output. Diagram 8, below illustrates the percentage increase or decrease year over year by industry and the tonnage sold by industry. Clearly, the industry that has been adding value to WH has been the motor vehicle industry. On average, over the last three years, the motor vehicle industry has increased 13 percent.If the motor vehicle industry continues on their current growth path, by the end of 2005, WH will have reached plant capacity of 95,000 tonnes per year (see Diagram 9, below). The forecast includes a 13 percent increase in motor vehicle tonnage per year and holds the other two industries with no growth or decline in tonnes required.PEST Con clusionThe rising cost of scrap iron and steel, a stagnate Germany economy, the German labour market and its regulations are proving extremely difficult for WH to deal with. In addition, WH is reaching plant capacity and they have not been able to control rising costs to date. For the last three years, wages and raw material purchases have been well over budget. SWOT ANALYSISA SWOT analysis was completed for WH to evaluate their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (see Diagram 10, below). The analysis identifies the key internal and external factors that will hinder or help WH achieve their stated goals and objectives.One of the key factors to WH success was their ability to understand their customer’s business needs and create new products for them. This was one area in the casting foundry industry that separated WH from their competitors; WH was and still is â€Å"Best in Class†, when it comes to product innovation. One area of improvement would be to e liminate or reduce the number of products that have low margins.By producing these low margin products, WH is tying up valuable resources both in time, money and material. One of the greatest threats WH will encounter is the surging casting foundries from Eastern European countries, such as Spain, Turkey and Poland. Currently, many of the Eastern European organizations either small or big are not OEM rated. However, with time and additional investment dollars, these organizations will be able to compete against WH on price.PORTERS FIVE FORCESOne final assessment was completed to determine the profitability or attractiveness of the casting foundry industry in Germany. By utilizing Porters Five Force model, a more realistic assessment of the competitive rivalry that exists in the market can be determined. This will give WH insight as to the attractiveness of the industry and determine what course of action (if any) is required.The analysis clearly demonstrated that the industry is hig hly profitable (see Diagram 11, above). The Barriers to Entry are high, making it difficult for organizations to enter. Entry requires a high initial capital investment and ongoing R&D dollars. Moreover, the bargaining power of the Buyer is Low, because switching costs are high. Substitutes products are available, but in the motor vehicle industry highly unlikely to be used.The  bargaining power of Suppliers is strong, because there is strong union presence and the raw material is based on world supply and demand prices. In short, the competitive rivalry within the Casting Foundry Industry is high, suggesting that the industry is profitable. Furthermore, with high exist barriers, because of the high fixed costs, it makes it extremely difficult to exit the industry, and thus remaining organizations will continue to suffer and lose more market share.Question 1A:  Is WH well positioned in it now and in the future?Not with their current casting process. Clearly, WH’s core com petency lies in their ability to produce exactly what the customer needs and then takes that knowledge one step further by producing new products that customers ends up wanting; WH creates demand for their new more profitable products. Moreover, WH links their internal logistical and informational systems with their customers. Basically, WH becomes an extension of their customers. The future for WH would be to outsource some non core activities of their value chain to 3rd parties in the casting foundry industry; perhaps in Eastern Europe, such as Poland, where wages are less and employment is more bountiful.In conclusion, with the current trends in the casting foundry industry, where growth is expected to increase 2% per year in tonnage and 3% per year in value, WH does not have the current structure to capitalize on this growth opportunity. Pricing has also become an issue and they are trying to go head to head with their customers and asking them to pick up the additional surcharg es on the price of scrap steel and iron. Moreover, with the additional investment in R&D, costs have not decreased. Revenues have been steadily rising, but so have costs and costs have outpaced revenues. This is evident, as WH is expected to lose 6 million in 2004, making it the worst loss in the company’s 4 year history.Question 2:  Is the alternative that WH’s management called â€Å"strategic change† really strategic? Justify you answer.In order to justify the answer, one must first define what strategic change is. According to Joseph N. Fry, one of the authors of Strategic Analysis  and Action he suggests that it is a tool for building, communicating and maintain the direction of the business. As for Lawrence G. Hrebiniak, he suggests that strategic change is all about execution. In his book, Making Strategy Work, he suggested that without a careful, planned approach to execution, strategic goals cannot be attained.Albeit, in both examples above, little reference is made to the actual strategy, but in reality both authors agree that the strategy is important, but the execution of the strategy is key to success. An analogy that can be used to illustrate their point of view would be a golfer that needs to fade a shot around a tree. The strategy has been set, the trajectory of ball flight has been visualized; wind and all other factors have been taken into consideration. What’s left is the actual striking of the ball. However, if the golfers’ core competency is to hit a draw, rather than a fade, the strategy has little to do with the result of the execution.One of WH alternative is to shut down Line 2, reduce employment by 114 workers and increase sales through a radical marketing campaign that started in 2003. However, the radical marketing campaign emphasizes a differentiation strategy as opposed to a price strategy as indicated by Klaas. The key to their current success is WH’s ability to understand their custo mer’s business needs and create specific casting moulds for them. In addition, WH has been able to develop new products with higher margins for their customers and then sell those products back to their customers; push marketing.By adopting a low cost strategy, rivals in the industry will eventually out price WH and take market share away from them. One of the reasons why WH can be out priced in the market is that their main competitors from Eastern Europe, such as Poland, have a much lower wage structures. To conclude, WH’s alternative does not fit the traditional definition of a strategic change. After reviewing the data and the definition, the answer remains a resolute no. The reason for the decision is that strategic change must take into consideration other aspects of the organization.The changes suggested by Klaas will not delivery the strategy in a controlled manner that is efficient and effective to implement. Strategic management is not about delivering one si ngle project or addressing one particular issue, but a process that governs the entire organization and how the entire  organization is affected by the strategic change (see Diagram 12, above). The so called alternative â€Å"strategic change† in the end will not deliver any real value to the organization, thus further suggesting that this is not a strategic change. Strategic change at the end of the day must deliver real value, not perceived value.In Germany that value takes on the form of a stakeholder, rather than a shareholder. Thus, by simply focusing on profits and ignoring the human costs of the layoffs, WH will not execute this strategy with any conviction or success. Both Fry and Hrebiniak realize that the process is complicated and contains many moving parts. In short, there is no magic bullet. Simply cutting workers and installing automated processes does not guarantee costs reductions and increased revenues.Question 3:  How much â€Å"flexibility† did t he company have in dealing with its problem?The reality of the situation is that WH only had perceived flexibility. With economic stagnation, an aging population, tight employment regulations and a shortage of workers, WH has limited flexibility in being able to deal with the problem. Moreover, with the increase in tariffs, raw materials and energy, WH has even less flexibility in addressing their current problem. WH was able to negotiate concessions with the Works Council; however, the concessions came with a hefty price. The Works Council’s goal was to save jobs in the short term for the promise of better pay in the long term. Thus, WH was able to negotiate special agreements to break the current collective agreement.WH negotiated for more free hours, less pay and forgone holidays and vacation pay, but had no control over dismissal’s and working exemptions; the Works Council held the balance of power in these two categories. For example, if employment dropped below 5 70 permanent employees, the regional tariff rates would come into effect and they did. The Works Council’s position for long term better pay may present a problem with a few of the alternatives being suggested by WH.The Works Council may not approve any of the alternatives that involve significant layoffs and pay reductions. These alternatives are in direct conflict with their own goals and objectives. In conclusion, perceived flexibility is much different than actual flexibility. WH may think they can suggest an alternative that  makes sense for them, but the reality is that without buy in from the Works Council, the strategy will surely fail to execute.Question 4:  What could management do to address the problem?WH management must develop a Strategic Management Process. The new strategic management process is to be undertaken by the executives at WH and GMH. The executives will review and interpret the Germany foundry industry and determine the direction for WH. At this point in the process the executives will set the Corporate Strategy (strategic direction) and priorities, while understanding and taking into consideration resources and budget constraints (see diagram 13, below).The seconds step is to create the â€Å"right† Corporate Structure with the proper incentives and controls to ensure that the Corporate Strategy can be achieved. The final step is to ensure that the Business Units understand the objectives set forth and have the necessary resources in place to achieve their goals and objectives. It is the business unit who is responsible for ensuring that they have the correct skills and capabilities in place in order to achieve the Corporate Strategy. Once the strategic management process has been developed, the next critical step in the process is to formulate a well defined plan that has clear and focused goals and objectives. These goals and objectives must be measurable, attainable and realistic.Moreover, the plan must address how these achievements will affect the overall organization, but more importantly, if the goals and objectives are not meet, what are consequences to the organization. This process must be open and transparent that will ensure that buy in will occur quickly. In conclusion, the execution of these key activities is the heart of any successful strategic management process. In addition, WH must ensure that the Works Council understands that the long term success of WH is in everyone’s best interest. The Works Council’s long term goal is for better pay for its workers, without WH, their goals and objectives will never be realized.Question 5:  What had management done so far?Management has accomplished a lot to date. They sold WH to GMH who had experience in purchasing distressed companies and providing them with fresh equity and motivating their work force. In addition, in 2003, WH implemented a radical marketing plan that increased revenues by approximately 13.6 % in 200 4. WH invested heavily in operations, by trying to automate the sand casting process. WH believed that they could further reduce the operating costs by automating a lot of the high touch processes.WH has also outsourced the finishing process, as this is one of the most costly processes in the sand casting process. WH hired a consultant by the name of Knight Wendling who was hired to improve productivity and reduce costs. His first mandate was to get customer to pay a scrap surcharge and eliminate unprofitable products. By the middle of 2004, 91 percent of customers were paying the surcharge and he eliminated 5,000 tonnes of products that were generating low contributions. Finally, in 2004 WH made some major changes to their current management structure and sent out a new message to their workers, that management was looking for fresh ideas that would make a difference.Question 6:  What actions were left open to WH’s management and would they make sense?One action that was l eft open was continuing with the Radical Marketing Plan that WH started in 2003. The marketing plan would continue to increase sales by 8.2 million and contribution by 5.2 million in 2005. However, one of the major issues with this action was that costs were also increasing and the increase in revenues and contributions was being offset by the rising cost of scrap iron and steel and wages. The rising costs, coupled with WH’s increase in prices were opening the doors to some of their direct competitors in Eastern Europe, such as Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic.This plan would only make sense if they could get the Works Council to increase the number of hours that employee’s could work and reduce the minimum number of workers required, before tariffs are enforced. Moreover, this approach would make sense, if WH could convince the Works Council that their short term objective to keep as many employees as  possible is actually going to hurt their long term goal of better pay for their workers. If WH and the Works Council could overlook their short term objectives and focus on their long term objectives, everyone would be better off.Question 7:  How could it pursue the remaining actions?WH could simply divest the entire operations and payout the 15.3 million owed to the workers ( 25,000 * 612 workers). However, this may not be in the best interest of the entire organization as an environmental assessment must be completed before the land gets rezoned. Worst case scenario, if the land is contaminated the purchaser may request that the seller clean the land before title change and this could cost GMH considerable money.The opportunity cost of closing down the plant would be the 15.3 million, thus the company could take that money and reinvest it into WH. Currently, WH is losing 6.2 million per year, if they continue losing this amount of money, that would buy them 3 additional years and then WH could simply sell the business. WH would have to create a strategic plan that takes into consideration all the options associated with investing additional capital. More so, they will need buy in from the Works Council. Without their buy in strategic plans will prove useless.

Friday, January 10, 2020

The Chronicles of Mee Essay Topics

The Chronicles of Mee Essay Topics Top Mee Essay Topics Secrets So, the choice of the topic is most important. Last, if you're interested in the MEE topics that were tested most frequently, don't lose out on our MEE One-Sheets. A superb topic will allow it to be simpler to pursue the purpose of an argumentative essay, which is, evidently, the whole investigation of the problem you speak about. Things You Should Know About Mee Essay Topics Cost of Online Education The virtual classroom is a lot more reasonably priced than the standard physical institutions of higher learning. The topic also needs to be the one which provides the students sufficient to write on. The intent of assigning an essay to middle school students is to make awareness and permit them to develop writing skills. It isn't possible to generate a true friend online. You are able to pick topics from several lists of ready themes. Therefore, the topic ought to be debatable! Quite frequently, the very best topic is one which you truly care about, but you also will need to get ready to research it. The key to pick out a very good topic for an argumentative essay is to select a subject where there's a lot of debates on topics or stances. If you are in possession of a valid issue and you may offer sufficient arguments on it, then go with this. To reach a compelling subject, you will need to focus on a single issue instead of using several thoughts which are inclined to confuse the reader. Bear in mind the type of the question you're answering and don't begin introducing new topics simply to pad out your answer. When you are requested to pick a great topic for your argument, start with something you're familiarized with. Mee Essay Topics Fundamentals Explained Understanding how to compose a strong argumentative paper can help you advance your very own argumentative thinking. It is crucial to get started with demonstrating the principal idea of the entire piece so you and your readers are going to be on the very same page. In instances when you get to pick the topic for an argumentative essay, you need to be wise and locate a title that will intrigue a reader. When students are writing their argumentative essays which need to find, read and analyze tons of material to do good. If you decide to be an independent essay writer, you can expect the exact same. Argumentative essay is about arguing and debating on a subject, which is debatable. An argumentative essay requires you to choose a topic and have a position on it. It is a particular type of academic writing. Moral argumentative essay topics are a few of the simplest to get carried away with. To come across argumentative essay topics easy on various platforms, you want to comprehend about the argumentative essay. Argumentative essays are a few of the best that you can write as a student. Locating good essay topics which you could discuss effectively and create powerful argumentative essays is a tricky work. Where to Find Mee Essay Topics Bear in mind you can make funny argumentative essays if you do a few things. Some people today live their lives based on their religion while some don't think you should factor that into decision making in regards to determining rules for everybody. When you're picking your topic, remember that it's much simpler to write about something which you presently have interest ineven in case you don't know a good deal about it. There are lots of things to argue when it regards the law. Besides general knowledge you have concerning the subject, you won' t mind dedicating some opportunity to research, writing procedure, and other elements essential for the high-quality essay. At precisely the same time, it also needs to be simple to research, that way you'll discover evidence to support claims you make. The procedure for translation is known as mathematical modelling. If you're struggling, you always have the option to acquire help by utilizing an essay writing service such as ours. For instance, in college, you might be requested to compose a paper from the opposing perspective. In this kind of situation, it's more convenient to discover ready-made essays and use them as an example. Even whenever you're stating your standpoint, make sure you do not come off as biased. To write this kind of assignment, you do not just have to have knowledge in a particular area but also be in a position to demonstrate that your point of view is accurate.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Hrm Issues in the Premium Oil and Gas Case - 2315 Words

This essay is based on the Premium Oil and Gas Company (POG) case study. POG, as a global, company is functioning in diversified business environment. It causes in fact, a necessity to deal with varied internal and external environmental issues, that occur within the company. Internal business environmental issues are in control of the enterprise. External business environmental issues, on the other hand, are driven by factors, that are beyond the control of the company (e.g. legal issues). According to the executives, POG company aspires to become a truly global enterprise, known for its modern and meritocratic management, supported by outstanding learning organisation. Nevertheless, some major issues can be found at all levels where†¦show more content†¦POG trainers find these behaviours in total opposition to the company brainstorming working patterns, consistent with open and free to ask POG culture. Another dimension in Hofstede’s model is individualism, as opposition to collectivism. There are several main differences between these assumptions (Hofstede, 2011). In individualistic social framework, only immediate family is expected to take care of its member (â€Å"I†- consciousness society). Individualistic approach is concerned with westernized cultures. On the other hand, in collectivist social framework, immediate family is extended to other relatives and non-relative in-group members (â€Å"We†- consciousness society). Definition, which more accurately describes Azeri society is collectivism, what POG trainers assumed to be a solid base to develop team working skills for them. However, as the practice shows, there is a strong recognition of inequality within the group members, resulting from status-conscious society model. In Trompennars and Hampden-Turner seven dimensions’ model (1997), status-conscious approach is defined as ascription theory, where status is based on position. Communication issues arise, when there is a need from trainers to identify responsibilities and contribution of particular members in a team. Communication within the team is also affected by the social status of its members. NextShow MoreRelatedMary Watson Was Recently Promoted to the Position of Regional Sales Manager for Today’s Fashion6635 Words   |  27 PagesTHE CASES FOR STUDY of HRM- Sept, 2012-Jan,2013 (BBA Intake 2010) Case 1 Introduction The Human Resource Manager and Managing Multiple Responsibilities At 7:30 A.M on Monday, Sam Lennox, human resource manager of the Lakeview plant of Supreme Textile Corporation, pulled out of his suburban home and headed for work. It was a beautiful day; the sun was shining in a bright-blue sky, and a cool breeze was blowing. 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